The Middle East and North Africa is a diverse region that was once home to great civilizations. Today, however, this region is weighed down by several challenges, including repressive governments, struggling economies, and geopolitical rivalries that inflame local conflicts. But, in many ways, the problems that affect this region reverberate far beyond its borders. In an increasingly interconnected world, challenges related to energy supplies, refugees, nuclear weapons, and terrorism have global implications. These issues have driven countries to intervene in the Middle East’s affairs repeatedly, with enormous consequences for the hundreds of millions of people in the region and billions around the world.