Europe, a region with a long history of conflict, reinvented itself after World War II. It worked to create a lasting peace through economic and political integration, culminating in the European Union. Europe is known for its high living standards, given its wealth, promotion of human rights, commitment to social spending, and widespread democracy. The GDP of the European Union is the world’s second-highest, behind just the United States. Today, however, European institutions are being tested, as Europe navigates a series of challenges: mass migration, globalization, rising inequality, financial turmoil, terrorism, and a resurgent Russia. The world will watch how Europe responds.