Steven J. Markovich, “U.S. Broadband Policy and Competitiveness.”

An accessible backgrounder on U.S. broadband policy (2000 words)

James McBride, “Modernizing the U.S. Energy Grid.”

An accessible backgrounder on the U.S. electricity grid that includes a section on the potential for cyberattacks (2,300 words)


Ian Bogost, “Welcome to the Age of Privacy Nihilism,” Atlantic, August 23, 2018.

A pessimistic look at the current state of online privacy (2,800 words)

Brian X. Chen, “I Downloaded the Information That Facebook Has on Me. Yikes,” New York Times, April 11, 2018.

An examination of how much data internet companies collect about their users (1,800 words)

Andy Greenberg, “The Untold Story of NotPetya, the Most Devastating Cyberattack in History,” Wired, August 22, 2018.

An excerpt from the author’s forthcoming book, Sandworm, on a Russian cyberattack that devastated facilities around the world (6,400 words)

Seymour Hersh, “The Online Threat,” New Yorker, November 1, 2010.

A long look at the risk of cyberwar, with view from both government figures and outside observers (6,500 words)

Will Oremus, “Are You Really the Product?Slate, April 27, 2018.

A thoughtful examination of the idea that we should think of Facebook (and other free online products) as being in the business of selling user data to advertisers, rather than in the business of providing a service to users (3,500 words)

Nicole Perlroth, “With New Digital Tools, Even Nonexperts Can Wage Cyberattacks,” New York Times, May 3, 2017.

An examination of ransomware, software used by criminals that encrypts targets’ data and then extorts them in return for a promise to decrypt the data (1,500 words)

Nicholas Schmidle, “The Digital Vigilantes Who Hack Back,” New Yorker, May 7, 2018.

A detailed look at cybercrime today, and one approach to combating it (5,900 words)

Kim Zetter, “An Unprecedented Look at Stuxnet, the World’s First Digital Weapon,” Wired, November 3, 2014.

An account of the Stuxnet attack excerpted from the author’s book on the same subject (2,100 words)


Michael Barbaro, “What Facebook Knew and Tried to Hide,” in The Daily (blog), New York Times, November 16, 2018.

A summary of how various actors have tried to use Facebook to influence American democracy and how Facebook has responded (29 minutes)

Carnegie Corporation of New York, "U.S.-Russia Relations: Quest for Stability," 2019.

An extensive collection of videos, timelines, and interactive maps and graphs about historical and current issues in U.S.-Russian relations.

Alex Gibney, Zero Days.

A feature-length documentary on the Stuxnet virus (114 minutes)

Hyrax Films, Terms and Conditions May Apply.

A look at how internet companies collect and use private data (80 minutes)

Telegeography, “Submarine Cable Map.”

A detailed map of all submarine cables.


Fred Kaplan, Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2016).

This book tells the history of cyberwar in a gripping, narrative-driven style (353 pages).

P. W. Singer and Allan Friedman, Cybersecurity and Cyberwar: What Everyone Needs to Know (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Written in a question-and-answer style and employing stories and anecdotes, this introduction is highly readable, but those who come with some knowledge of the internet already may find it simplistic (320 pages).

Kim Zetter, Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World’s First Digital Weapon (New York: Broadway Books, 2014).

Written by a journalist, this book both tells the story of Stuxnet and examines the overall state of cyberwarfare today (448 pages).

Referenced Module