in nonproliferation, an activity or process conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify that a country is not putting its nuclear program to military use. Safeguards aim to establish that countries are telling the truth when they report their nuclear activities to the IAEA. Inspections, surveillance cameras, and many other tools are part of this effort. All nonnuclear states that are parties to the NPT must sign safeguards agreements allowing the IAEA to monitor their nuclear programs; some have also signed Additional Protocols allowing more intensive steps.